How to become a beautiful leader

Business Impact: How to become a beautiful leader

Beauty expresses the idea that we can seek the good and manifest it in all that we create in this world, says Alan Moore, author of Do Build. Discover how ‘beautiful’ leadership can be a frame for business

If you are a leader, you are a builder. And if you are building something, make sure you build well. Here are some reflections on how to become a ‘beautiful’ leader by instilling certain kinds of values, a positive mindset and good working practices.

What world do you want to make?

What gets you out of bed on a Monday morning when it is pouring with rain? When it hurts like hell, what keeps you going? What is the deep well you draw from that fuels your best creativity? ‘World-making’ is the reason, the fire that stokes the furnace. This is the north star on the path that takes you home to your true self, serving as a beacon to others. It is about being true to yourself. It’s not about money or reward, nor is it a theoretical exercise. Companies that care about the world they make create bonds and relationships with people who share those values and worldviews.

The coffee buyer, Falcon Coffees, wishes ‘to change the way coffee is traded for good’. This is no mean feat, as coffee is traded as a commodity. As a result, the 26 million people who make it their business to grow the world’s coffee, meeting people’s insatiable thirst for the stuff, are also often treated as commodities. Falcon Coffees challenges that exploitative way of working by building supply chains with rural farming communities for mutual profit and positive social impact.

The Japanese martial artist, Morihei Ueshiba, who created Aikido in the early 20th century, did so with the aim of protecting all life that exists on this planet. The computer mouse inventor, Doug Engelbart, who pioneered hypertext and video conferencing, wanted to help people to share knowledge, so they could collectively solve some of the world’s most pressing problems. Consider your business’ mission. Ask yourself, what world do you want to make? How do you wish to live?

Generosity as leadership

Generosity and business do not always go hand in hand. However, Guido Bernardinelli, CEO of La Marzocco, founded in 1927 and still privately owned, has spoken of its merits. When asked how his company has managed to survive, thrive and innovate, he has simply replied: ‘total devotion to our people’. La Marzocco builds some of the best handmade espresso coffee machines in the world.

Approaching leadership with a sense of generosity taps into the greatest human qualities. In business, as in life, you should always strive to give back more than you take. Generosity is nurturing for people. Creating the right conditions for your staff to thrive is key to being the best and most effective leader that you can be.

The Icelandic artist, Olafur Eliasson, opened my eyes to the possibility of generosity, by feeding around 100 of his staff every day with a freshly cooked vegetarian meal. Eliasson says: ‘Cooking is caring for others. It is a gesture of generosity.’ He states that eating together brings a connection between human beings, food and the sun.

Generosity begins with an invitation, and in capable hands brings a rich flow of information, so a deeper understanding of the world evolves. Eliasson has teams

with specific functions, working on a range of projects. He wants them to feel that they are interwoven; he does so by showing he truly cares. As the South Korean Buddhist nun and cook, Jeong Kwan, says, with food what we are really eating is the ‘mindset of sharing’. This is generosity. In your own work, consider asking the question: How can you show generosity as a leader in a way that will feed the cultural fabric of your business?

The empathetic leader

A leader’s ability to be truly empathetic shows strength, not vulnerability. This is a nurturing quality. It allows one to see far deeper into the truth of people and to find their potential. If you show empathy, people will then reveal their potential to you. This courageous act means you have empowered and strengthened your organisation and its potential. Empathy is an investment that will repay you.

Ethical decision-making

There is no shortcut to creating worthwhile outcomes. I have seen too many decisions made for short-term gain, where constant growth in the service of profit becomes a sickness, which can be terminal. Look at a situation when you feel deadlines pressing so hard that there is no time or air to breathe. How do you as a leader deal with intense pressure, managing the expectations of investors, board members and those within the team?

Imagine a company at a board meeting. The firm is under pressure. Decisions must be made to counter its ailing financial performance. A number of board members have come up with a ruse to fabricate evidence, enabling the company to sell its products falsely. It’s a risky plan because if the deception were to be discovered, the consequences could be disastrous: a fall in market valuation; a loss of trust in the brand, which would impact sales; fatal damage to the leadership team; and the high costs of legal action.

This could be the legacy of making such a choice. But what if someone asks the question: ‘Is that the most ethical decision we can make?’ It’s a simple question but one that is packed with important frames for business decision-making: how to stand in truth, how to be guided instinctively to a better outcome, how to discover a path based on values, and how to retain the concept of legacy building. If you are a disruptive leader, this question encourages you to resist the urge to break things, and instead use the time to build. There is a saying that what happens in vagueness stays in vagueness. This question helps to illuminate an ambiguous world and to navigate to a better destination.

Beautiful decision-making

To build a business the world needs, we have to be prepared to create products or services that are both beautiful and profitable. The question, ‘is that the most beautiful decision we can make?’ asks you to be fully open with your mindset and to embrace challenges with optimism. It steers the imagination to find an alternative path, informing the right action. It provides and asks for crystal-clear clarity.

Consider asking, ‘is that the most beautiful decision we can make?’ within your own organisation. It does not have to be for a matter of high strategic importance. It could be about an everyday issue. Reflect on a situation that has happened or one that is upcoming, where decisions made will shape your future. This simple question reframes what a good outcome could be. Those who ask a more beautiful question could find a more beautiful answer.

This is an edited excerpt from Do Build: How to make and lead a business the world needs by Alan Moore, published by Do Books. 

BGA members can receive a 25% discount on a copy of Do Build. Please visit the BGA Book Club for details.

Discover more about making and leading a business the world needs – attend a webinar with the author of Do Build on 5 July 2022, 12:00 – 13:00 BST (UTC+01:00).

Alan Moore has collaborated with companies that include Microsoft, Coca-Cola and PayPal, and has taught at MIT Sloan School of Management and INSEAD. He is the author of four books on creativity and business transformation, including Do Design (Do Books, 2016).

Headline image credit: Yannis Papanastasopoulos on Unsplash

How can Business Schools develop leaders that embody the change needed in the business world?

Business Impact: How can Business Schools develop leaders that embody the change needed in the business world?

What makes the difference between those of us that simply complain and those of us that endeavour to make things better, for people and the planet? David Lewis and Jules Goddard, co-authors of Mavericks, look at leadership characteristics and other important aspects for Business Schools to focus on

Let us start with two observations. First, almost every executive and management team with which we’ve ever worked has had no difficulty in articulating numerous frustrations about how their organisation is run; and equally no difficulty in expressing their great ideas about how it should be run. Second, when we have had the opportunity to return to these organisations a year later and ask the same question – ‘what are your frustrations and thwarted ambitions?’ – we are met with the same list we heard a year earlier. 

Stanford Graduate School of Business Professor, Jeffrey Pfeffer, refers to this as the ‘knowing-doing gap’ – most of us know that things should be and could be much better, but few of us do anything about it. The knowing-doing gap, coupled with the two observations above, provoked us to initiate a research project. Why? Because we also observed that while most of us simply moan about how bad things are, some of us actually do something about it. And the question we wanted to explore is, what differentiates those of us that recognise incompetence, inadequacy and lack of ambition, but do little about it, from those of us that dedicate our lives to making positive transformational change for the betterment of others?

Rik Vera is one such person. Rik started his career as a teacher, but after being made redundant because the school at which he taught was closed down, he started a career in carpet sales. In Rik’s own words, he saw sales as a competition: ‘How can I win against my competitors?’ 

The classic model of business competition. Then he was asked to take over and run the carpet manufacturing plant. On the first day, when he walked into the factory and saw the inefficiencies, the pollution and the inhumane working conditions, Rik was shocked. 

As a result of being asked to run the factory – the place where the product is made – his mindset changed from seeing the point of business as to win, to the point of business as being to create ‘a better world for people and planet’. This became Rik’s life philosophy. He asked a new and different question – instead of the question being, ‘how can I win?’, Rik asked himself, ‘how can I make carpets in a sustainable way in terms of the planet, the use of resources, and the way in which we work?’ 

In research, published in our book, Mavericks, we interviewed more than 30 people like Rik – people from all walks of life and from across the world, to discover what it takes to persist and succeed in making the world a better place.

Making better use of brains and technology 

There are no shortage of challenges that need our attention to make the world a better place: the World Bank has estimated that nearly half the world’s population live on less than $5.50 USD a day; 2.8 million adults die each year as a result of being overweight or obese, according to the World Health Organization; and in a period of unprecedented wealth creation, prison populations have doubled, trebled and, in some countries, quintupled. We could go on. Yet, more than at any time in our history, we have the resources, the ingenuity and the technology to enable everyone to live a fulfilling and flourishing life. The question is, where are these resources and why are they not being fully deployed for the benefit of us all? Where are our best brains? Who owns the latest technology? To what extent is our human ingenuity, creativity and innovation being used? 

The answer is that the best brains are your brains, the best technology resides in your organisations. The question is how we can make better use of our brains and technology to make the world a better place. 

This is not a question to be outsourced to a supplier, the government, or shareholders… or whoever else you want to make responsible; it is a question for you. So, what are you doing to make best use of those resources? And the question we want to explore here is how can Business Schools help people to make best use of those resources and create more worthy value? 

Business Schools have traditionally taken an accountancy view of what we mean by ‘value’ and ‘cost’. The problem is accountancy does not take into ‘account’ many of the costs involved in creating value – the unintended negative value created for one group in pursuit of creating value for another, referred to by economists as externalities. Externalities are unpriced effects that arise from the production and sale of goods and services. Air pollution from vehicles, aircraft and container ships, is one example. The cost of this is not paid for by either the producers or the consumers of specific products and services, but is paid for by the rest of society, in the form of ill health and treatment for example. We are all made worse off by pollution, but are not compensated by the market for this damage. 

This is one of the main reasons why, in democracies at least, governments intervene to attempt to rebalance using, for example, carbon offsetting programmes, regulations around the percentage of components in production that must be recyclable, and so on. But while this intervention from government is helpful, if not critical to safeguard people and planet, what if businesses and Business Schools took on more responsibility for this rebalancing? What would this mean for Business School curricula? What would it mean for the kind of leadership executive programmes should promote?

Here are some thoughts that we believe could radically transform Business School curricula and create the leaders we need to create the world we all want to see and live in.  

What is ‘good’?

A few years ago, we were struck by the absence of philosophical thinking in shaping and informing our modern-day management and organisational practice. We had this image of a two-legged stool, an unbalanced situation – something was missing. As we thought about it, we realised our organisational thinking is derived from two very impressive bodies of knowledge: economics and psychology. Economics asks the question, ‘how can we make efficient use of scarce resources?’ Psychology asks the question, ‘how can we get other people to do what we want them to do?’ But neither of these two great disciplines contain an ethical point of view at their heart. This is what is missing.

You only have to think of some of the language used. Economics refers to people as factors of production, just like land and capital. And the human resources department? They refer to you and me as human resources. Management speak is punctuated with the words ‘buy-in’, ‘engagement’ and ‘motivation’. What does this mean? It means buying into what I think is right; it means being motivated to do what I want you to do, and it means being engaged with my agenda.

Economics and psychology have worked miracles. To take just one example, 500 million people have been lifted out of poverty in 30 years in China through capitalism, or ‘socialism with Chinese characteristics’. We have the wonders of the internet, space travel and the robotic lawnmower. Yet in the west, in Asia and increasingly in Africa, as we become better off, we are left with the question, ‘how do we know if what we are doing is good?’ How do we know what is ethical? These are philosophical questions.

Philosophy is the discipline that asks the questions, ‘what is ‘good’?’ ‘what is the right thing to do?‘ and ‘what is the right way to do it?’ Philosophy is the third leg of the two-legged stool that can balance the incredible power of economics and psychology by asking the critical question, ‘what is the ethical dimension of business?’

In our 2019 book, What Philosophy Can Teach You About Being a Better Leader, we use philosophical thinking to challenge standard management practice and ask, ‘what do we mean by organisational values?’ ‘what do we mean by empowerment?’ ‘what do we mean by authority?’ and ‘how do we approach communication and change management?’ These are questions that should be at the centre of executive education in Business Schools – not because there is a clear formulaic answer that we can teach, but because these are the questions that define the paradoxes and dilemmas of leadership. 

How do you decide between options, all of which are part good and part bad, depending on the stakeholder perspective you take and how do you resolve conflicting values? 

The classic Business School approach is to insist on developing organisational values. And yet when you look at almost all organisations’ values, you’re struck by two things. One, they look exactly the same, and two, they seem to have been distilled into five statements, sometimes four, sometimes six. This is an impoverished view of values. There are many values that all of us hold dear, but we know that our values alone do not give us the answer, they generate the question. How do you reconcile the need for transparency with the need for confidentiality? How do you reconcile the need to be honest and the need to be sensitive? How do we square the circle? 

There is no prescriptive answer, there is no set of rules. It is a moral dilemma. It must be addressed in each instance in dialogue and conversation. It requires judgement and an answer to the question, ‘how do I decide between two competing goods?’ A decision you have to live with, to argue for, and to justify, in terms of your moral framework – that is a leadership decision. To make decisions and collaborate within a morally pluralistic world, to engage with others whose values may be different – not better or worse, but different. This is the job of leadership. This is where we need to place more emphasis in our Business School curricula.

The mindset and skillset of purposeful leaders

During our conversations with Rik Vera and others who have made a consistently positive impact on their organisation or community, what became clear was that despite their very different personalities and situations, they shared a common set of characteristics. We identified five core characteristics of these ‘Mavericks’, or individuals who persist and succeed in making positive change happen: 

1. A passionate belief that things should be better.

2. Resourcefulness to connect people and ideas to create momentum towards a better outcome.

3. Preparedness to challenge the status quo and act in unorthodox and nonconformist ways to get things done.

4. The ability to learn and make progress through trial and error, and through experimentation.

5. The ability to remain undeterred in the face of ridicule, resistance and sometimes outright hostility.

As part of our quantitated research, we asked a control group of executives from organisations across the world to rank themselves with respect to these five mindset/skillset characteristics. Then we compared the results to how our Maverick leaders ranked themselves against the same five characteristics. Both the Mavericks and the control group had strong beliefs that things should be better. This confirms our opening observation that almost everyone, Maverick and non-Maverick alike, believes that things could be better in their organisation or community. 

On the next characteristic, resourcefulness, a gap emerged. The Mavericks saw themselves as more resourceful, 10% more resourceful than our control group. With respect to nonconformity, an even bigger gap emerged. The Mavericks saw themselves as 20% more nonconformist. A still bigger gap emerged on the next characteristic, with Mavericks demonstrating themselves to be 25% more experimental. The biggest gap came in relation to the final characteristic of being undeterred – the Mavericks rated themselves as being 27% more undeterred than those in the control group. 

What differentiates the Maverick from the non-Maverick is the extent to which they are resourceful, nonconformist, experimental and undeterred. This is what makes the difference between those of us that simply complain and those of us that endeavour actively to make things better. So, what should Business Schools do to help more of their students become Maverick leaders? Our advice is that they should focus as much on the following as they do on strategy and finance.

Life philosophy

In our Schools, we should help executives to strengthen and articulate their life philosophy, their higher purpose of being. It was clear that each of the leaders we identified as being a Maverick had a philosophy of life that drove them, shaped their high-level goals and informed their day-to-day activity. Here are some examples:

I just want to help people feel better, and wanting people to know that they are cared for and loved… I always had a sense of fighting for the underdog and the importance of justice.’ Annmarie Lewis.

I have a real burning passion to stimulate brilliance in people, it’s as simple as that.’ Akin Thomas.

Giving back to my country [Mexico] my people, and all the wonderful things that I have received. It is my responsibility, my duty, to make a positive impact.’ Oscar Corona Lopez.

Diverse networks 

Maverick leaders do not work alone. Neither can they afford to be surrounded by people like them. Maverick leaders build open and diverse networks and engage with others with curiosity. We need to help executives develop the skills of curiosity and empathy. As one of our Mavericks, Annmarie, explained, it is about cultivating fertile ground by making connections with different stakeholder groups, in government, in business, in academia, in communities. Annmarie is going where she can get traction, where her nonconformity and her radical perspective can be taken up, developed and pushed forward with others.

Growth mindset and self-efficacy

These leaders embody the growth mindset, a term introduced by US psychologist, Carol Dweck, and reject the fixed mindset. They are adaptive but never defeatist. They judge by outcomes rather than just intent. Their optimism is often irrational. What they fear is not failure but fatalism. 

A growth mindset is not a genetically fixed characteristic, nor is it determined one way or another by early nurture. It can be, and needs to be, developed and strengthened in all of us, at every stage of our career. A growth mindset fuels self-efficacy. Unlike self-esteem, which is a judgement of one’s own self-worth, self-efficacy is an existential commitment to one’s own capacity to build a worthwhile life. It is a promise to oneself, not an assessment of oneself. Over the course of a well-lived life, it tends to strengthen as the sense of personal accountability also strengthens. 

In summary, Business Schools can do so much more to develop leaders that embody the change needed in the business world by: helping leaders to understand, explain and manage paradox; develop and articulate their life philosophy; develop their curiosity and the diversity of their networks; adopt a more experimental mindset; adopt a growth mindset; and facilitate transformational conversations.

David Lewis (left) is a Guest Lecturer at London Business School and Hult International Business School.
Jules Goddard (right) is a Fellow of London Business School.
David Lewis and Jules Goddard are the co-authors of Mavericks: How Bold Leadership Changes the World (Kogan Page, 2022).

This article is taken from Business Impact’s print magazine (edition: February 2022-April 2022).

How to practice conscious leadership

Business Impact: How to practice conscious leadership

A conscious leader is self-aware, radically responsible, and focuses on forging a positive impact while building a community of ‘we’ rather than a culture of ‘me’, says Marika Messager

What is ‘conscious leadership? Ultimately, it means honouring your potential in everything you do. Embodying the principles of conscious leadership means standing firm on three pillars that I believe are essential to achieving it: clarity, presence, and creation.

Three pillars of conscious leadership

1.* Clarity: knowing who you are, what you want, when to take action and how to go about it. Most leaders who lack self-awareness cannot bring their authentic self into situations and therefore either hide and manipulate, lack self-confidence, don’t feel good enough or suffer from impostor syndrome. When we come from a place of truth and authenticity, we come from a place of ‘soft power’; which means standing strong in our alignment while not needing to exert power over others, but rather, empower all to achieve our vision/mission.

2.* Presence: this refers to emotional intelligence and your ability to master your emotions; respond to challenges and opportunities in a way you’re proud of. A conscious leader practices emotional agility and has the capacity to maintain expansive emotions such as self-confidence, courage, trust, joy, and inner peace. All while minimising emotional triggers and outburst. Without presence it is extremely hard for any leader to truly level up.

3.* Creation: the strategic and execution plan (including the processes and systems) that you have designed from a place of clarity and presence. You will achieve more creative power when you have clear intentions and you have mastered your emotions.

Conscious leadership is a way of life, where one commits to living in the spirit of radical truth. Being aligned with one’s true self and therefore embodying that truth in every dimension of your life. In that process, a conscious leader is self-aware, radically responsible, and focuses on forging a positive impact while building a culture/family/community of ‘we’ rather than a culture of ‘me’.

How can conscious leadership help you create success?

Success is an inside job. The more conscious and self-aware you are, the more you understand that success is a perfect equilibrium between financial success, inner peace and making an impact.

Many people measure their effectiveness as a leader through the success that they’ve achieved. In my years of working with clients, I have observed two things. There are some who had a hard time attaining success and those who were able to grasp it in their hands easily. What is the difference between these two types of leaders?

  • People who have a hard time achieving their goals have a hard time making decisions and are sometimes so stuck that they are unable to make decisions at all. They often feel fear or frustration which freezes them and renders them useless and unable to make a choice. There is a large percentage of people who find it hard to find success because they see consciousness as an illusion and they refuse to embark on efforts that will make them more self-aware.
  • On the other hand, leaders who seem to find themselves celebrating one win after another have a very distinct characteristic. It is easy for them to make decisions. They seem to do everything the right way, at the right time. They always seem confident and always ‘in the flow’. They are in momentum, make accurate decisions and expand in all areas of their lives. The leaders who fall under this category see consciousness as a truth. They continually work on themselves to achieve higher levels of consciousness. They understand that in order to access or maintain higher levels of leadership, they have to embrace the ‘conscious path’ in order to stay ahead. These are conscious leaders.

Awareness and conscious leadership

Conscious leadership is having the awareness of your physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual bodies. Without self-awareness and self-leadership, nothing happens: you have to work on yourself first.

Consciousness works on the persona of the ‘Healed Healer’. The four aspects of awareness are detailed below:

1.* On a mental level, you are aware of your thoughts and have the ability to choose what you want to focus on. You have mastered the power of intention.

2.* On an emotional level, you have the capacity to feel your emotions, both negative and positive, release what no longer serves and bring yourself back into emotional alignment once triggered. You are not operating from your wounds, but rather from a strong emotional core.

3.* On a physical level, you understand that taking care of your physical self is a pre-requirement to emotional and mental mastery. You have practices that support your potential and the ability to break free from unhealthy habits or addictions.

4.* On a spiritual level, you are strongly in tune with your purpose and operate from your personal vision of positive impact. You have learned to trust your intuition, developed a sound understanding of spiritual technologies and stepped into your creator power.

Conscious leadership in the organisation

In our business, we believe in the principle of ‘elevating humanity through business and elevating business through humanity.’ Through humanity, we raise consciousness in business and through business we raise consciousness in humanity.

In any organisation, conscious leaders want to be a force for good for the people they work with, the stakeholders, and the planet. They come from a place of innovation and a commitment to access market leadership with the understanding that a conscious business is based on the three pillars of profit, people and planet.

Our mission is to guide curious minds into the world of consciousness and its possibilities. We believe that as we create conscious success in all dimensions of our lives, we become human beings driven to foster a positive impact on the world and create a better future for all. Now more than ever, it is time for conscious leadership.

Main image credit: Marc Sendra Martorell on Unsplash

Marika Messager is the CEO and Founder of ConsciousLeadership.org. She has a background in the financial markets, where she was recognised as one of the industry’s most successful equity sales professionals, making it to a seven-figure annual compensation at the age of 31 and managing 40 people across Europe at 34. 

To grow a business you must also develop its leaders

Business Impact: to grow a business you must also develop its leaders

Leadership and business development must be designed in tandem within organisations – and Business Schools can provide the education to support this, writes Aalto University’s Pekka Mattila

Leadership development is crucial in creating competitive business advantage. It improves financial performance, helps attract and retain talent, drives strategy execution, and increases success in navigating change. Leadership development should be seen as part of overall business development. In short, leadership and business development are two sides of the same coin. 

But not all organisations have caught up with this view. This could be due to the fact that resources in both public and private organisations tend to fluctuate, and HR projects are the first to fall victim to cost-cutting. This causes the business to lose sight of the bigger picture. HR development and business development happen in parallel, but in silos – they are often very disconnected, even though they depend on each other. 

When running a business, ultimately the main goal is to make a profit, and HR can contribute to this, but during periods of economic instability, the main aim is to keep the business afloat. Anything that is not needed to keep the business running takes a backseat. Developing employees is important, but ensuring they keep their jobs is even more so. 

When an upturn eventually comes around, the business begins to address the maintenance backlog accrued during the cost-cutting period, and must start from scratch as HR projects were put on hold, or phased out. To avoid this chain of events, smart organisations will formulate an overarching trajectory for their leadership development objectives and activities. 

For this to succeed, they need leadership development and business development. 

Leadership development programmes offer external inputs as stimuli. However, growth does not take place in a classroom, it happens when leaders apply the skills they’ve learned in their work. By combining business development and leadership development, employees can apply these skills immediately. Only by combining leadership and business development will individuals be able to conduct experiments, implement experience and insights, and close the knowing-doing gap. It also allows them to validate what they’ve learned and see how it works in their own contexts. 

Develop the right leadership programmes

Leadership development programmes often offer a ‘buffet-style’ experience. These programmes dish out a spectrum of coaches and facilitators with many tools and concepts. However, the selection is so varied that it could lead to ‘overeating’, where participants end up with huge piles of literature and other materials, but lack the opportunity to apply their learning to their work. 

This approach can often overwhelm participants, but the goal is not for every individual to adopt every tool and concept on offer. Instead, a high-quality leadership development programme caters to many different skills and needs. 

Here at Aalto University Executive Education, we strive to integrate a live business case into each programme so that participants can test their new skills and knowledge and see what works for them.

Leadership training with a vision

Leadership development programmes are linked to organisations’ long-term visions. In the best-case scenario, the strategy is also still in the making and the strategy dialogue takes place, in part, on the leadership programme platform. This way, the programme provides an opportunity to validate hypotheses on the go. Programmes make it possible to facilitate these discussions in a structured manner. 

In strategy work, it is important to decide what we choose to believe as ‘truth’. All industries have become more challenging; they find competition in unexpected places, or notice their competitors innovating with revenue and business models. 

Smart organisations will view leadership development programmes as voyages of discovery to uncharted territories, or as an opportunity to validate assumptions. 

Support for strategy implementation

Many organisations will have already formed a strategy but not yet implemented it. In this scenario, a leadership development programme can provide outside support and guidance, or serve as a platform for launching projects. Having a programme means that projects don’t get buried under competing priorities. They have a structure, a timetable, a support system, and control points. 

The challenge most organisations face is that people get excited about ambitious new strategies and visions, but ask what’s going to happen next. This places pressure on management to show that the vision will lead to action, and that they are serious about implementing it, not just trying to be trendy. In this situation, a leadership development programme may serve to prove that things are changing. 

When implementing strategy, the timeline is important. It’s vital that the organisation gets moving in weeks, and achieves a concrete milestones within months. This may be as simple as announcing that a task force has been launched – another thing with which leadership programmes can help. 

Goals provide focus 

Leadership programmes are not only a great way to make people feel included, but also a way to channel the organisation’s energies in the right direction. But this only works if the programme is directly linked to the organisation’s ambitions – so the more concrete objectives organisation can present, the better. Effective goals are always measurable because it helps identify what must happen to achieve results. 

Leadership skills impact the bottom line

As I’ve already stated, leadership development is proven to help organisations achieve their business development goals, but it also gives backing to the entire management team responsible for implementing the organisations strategy. 

Research carried out by McKinsey and Egon Zehnder in 2011 revealed that while talent is always important, only exceptional talent makes a real difference. According to the report, there was a high correlation between executives with ‘excellent’ capabilities and the organisations financial performance, while merely ‘good’ performance showed no correlation. 

In appraising leadership development, we should move from measuring intellection and cognitive skills to evaluating the concrete actions taken and the results achieved. 

The real impact of a leadership development programme should manifest itself in improved business development performance. 

What does this mean for Business Schools?

If more organisations adopt the idea that leadership development and business development go hand in hand, then they will start to rely on Business Schools more and more to provide them with the education to support this. 

Combining leadership and business development benefits both the organisation and the Business School. It benefits the organisation because, as I said earlier, leadership development and business development are two sides of the same coin. By using leadership programmes to develop the leaders within a business, you will help the business to succeed, because a good leader will implement vision and values, ensure effective communication, and motivate employees. 

It will benefit the Business School because more people will attend the School, but it also brings in a variety of different voices who have had experience in different industries. 

Working together with an organisation allows them to bring in real-world problems, discuss and come up with a solution – which will then benefit the individual when they face a similar problem in their job. By combining leadership and business development, you are truly enhancing their education. 

Pekka Mattila is the Group Managing Director of Aalto University Executive Education and serves as a Professor of Practice at the Aalto University School of Business.

This article originally appeared in Ambition – the magazine of the Association of MBAs.

How the world’s biggest societal changes will impact business

Newtobusines-impact-global-impact-on-busines-cropped.jpg

Inequality, climate change, values and technology. Alison Watson, Head of School of Leadership and Management at Arden University, delves into four global challenges and considers what they will ask of tomorrow’s business leaders

Society is constantly evolving. In the past two decades alone, there have been some remarkable feats that have inevitably changed the way we live and how society works.

Little changes can also cause big waves in our everyday lives, such as the shift to remote working and the emphasis on wellbeing brought about by the Covid-19 pandemic.

If we understand how the world is changing, we will know what problems to expect and can help prepare the next generation of leaders to deal with them. Here are four major trends to consider.

* 1. The great rise of technology

The pandemic has sped up the use of technology and inevitably shifted the skills future jobs will demand. Staying competitive in this changing business environment requires new strategies and practices, with findings suggesting that most executives recognise technology’s strategic importance as a critical component of the business, not just a source of cost efficiencies.

Despite worries that certain jobs will become obsolete, many future roles will be created by, and revolve around, the fourth industrial revolution and the digitisation of the workplace. These in-demand skills will result in business leaders needing a set of foundational skills: cognitive, digital, interpersonal and self-leadership (including self-awareness, self-management and entrepreneurship) skills. With AI, tech developments and automation assisting the labour market, the talents employees bring to the table need to complement digital advancements.

We are already seeing the benefits technology brings. Being able to work remotely has changed the way people view the working day; rightly so, there is now more importance on maintaining a good work-life balance and more freedom to apply for jobs that were once out of reach simply due to location and inability to commute. It has given those with disabilities more options and has allowed parents to progress in their careers without having to sacrifice precious time with their children.

Technology, among many other things, should be allowing businesses to welcome a more diverse team. It will allow business leaders of the future to engage with people from a range of specialisms and sectors, allowing them to broaden their horizons and continually inform their developing worldview.

This interaction will help leaders adjust their perspectives, enable them to build strong, long-lasting relationships with key stakeholders and reinforce an understanding of people across various cultures and backgrounds, allowing them to become a keen advocate of diversity and flexibility.

At the heart of this, therefore, the businesspeople of the future must have a deep understanding of people – they need to know how to empower and get the best from their teams and have a deep emotional and social intelligence which enables them to understand and gauge the impact of the decisions they make on the people around them.

* 2. Values matter

One change that has gathered pace throughout the pandemic and shows no signs of slowing down is that people want to be involved in something that matters, something that aligns with their values and something that fulfils them.

This ‘awakening’ that successive lockdowns brought on has resulted in society wanting more purpose behind their decisions – whether it is deciding to be more sustainable for the environment or changing jobs because they want to work at home full-time. This means businesses of the future will need a more holistic approach. There will be more emphasis on impact and inclusivity; it is not solely about profit.

Business leaders will need to keep this in mind. In order to survive, they will need to consider what people – consumers and workers alike – want. They will be held accountable for decisions that do not align with ethics, just as we have seen with some fast fashion brands, for example, in recent years.

As technology allows us to connect more easily, it will become simpler and more feasible for consumers and employees to go elsewhere if a business does not meet their needs. Things will become more competitive, so the business students of today need to prepare and think about how they will conduct strategies with people’s needs in mind.

*3. Climate change

A change we cannot ignore is climate change and its impact on society. It will undoubtedly cause colossal changes that span different areas, including business. For example, as the effects of climate change become more prominent, more and more consumers are looking to buy goods and services from businesses that operate in ethical and sustainable ways.

According to McKinsey, companies need to take climate considerations into account when looking at capital allocation, development of products or services, and supply-chain management, among other things. This will require a change in mindset, new operating models, and tools and processes to integrate climate risk into decision-making.

So, what does this mean for the business leaders of tomorrow? As mentioned earlier, they’ll be expected to be holistic leaders who make decisions based on sound moral and ethical principles. They’ll need to empower their teams and be innovative in order to revolutionise business strategies that will maximise sustainable and ethical practices.

The future business leader will be a sustainable leader – someone who will drive change by addressing the core social, environmental and economic issues affecting our planet. Instead of getting caught up on ‘everyday’ business matters, the leaders of tomorrow that have sustainability at their core will need to be able to ally short-term business objectives with longer-term, strategic plans that consider objectives relating to economic health, the environment, people and society.

They will need to have a comprehensive worldview that contemplates and understands humanity’s place as part of a global ecosystem and will need to be able to lead and influence others.

*4. The widening gaps in the workforce

Disparity in the workplace remains a big topic with many conferences dedicated to closing the gender gap, for example, and many movements trying to showcase the importance of a diverse workplace.

This final trend is continually evolving and impacting businesses and, as such, is also one that is influenced by the aforementioned points. As climate change takes its toll on Earth’s physical planet, for example, it will cause social, economic, and political chaos as refugees flee areas that can no longer sustain them.

Society is likely to become more polarised due to the impacts of climate change. With some areas losing natural resources, such as drinking water, and conditions either too hot and dry, or too cold and wet, livelihoods will be threatened and citizens will be displaced, causing a rise in people seeking asylum. A rise in floods and increased pollution will also cause public health concerns. Research has shown that social inequality is characterised by a vicious cycle, whereby disadvantaged groups suffer a disproportionate loss of their income and assets from the effects of climate change, resulting in greater, subsequent inequality.

With the rise of technology, we will again see disadvantaged groups missing out on key developments due to financial constraints. As life expectancy rates grow, many will continue to work long past the traditional age of retirement and yet they may fall behind if not included in the rapid developments that allow economies and businesses to thrive.

All of this will result in disparities if development and inclusion aren’t key aspects for businesses. Business leaders will need to consider how best to deploy this older, more experienced workforce, how to react to the movement of asylum seekers and disadvantaged groups, and how they can close the inequality gap.

What traits do you need to be a ‘sustainable leader’? Alison Watson, Head of the School of Leadership and Management at Arden University, looks at qualities to embrace and develop, and outlines why businesses will need them

Alison Watson is Head of School of Leadership and Management at Arden University. Alison has a wealth of experience in business and management having worked for a number of large retailers as an operations and project manager. Her recent research interests focus on inclusion and encouraging wider access to higher education.

Leading with trust

trust-teamwork-collaboration-managemwent-skills

Business isn’t capitalising on the benefits trust can bring, say HBS Professor, Sandra Sucher, and HBS Research Associate, Shalene Gupta. But students of management must be made aware of how trust relates to power and how leaders must govern themselves to retain it

Leaders have powers other people don’t. They get to decide (or lead a process of deciding) what products or services a company will offer, how many people to employ and what kinds of jobs they will have, which suppliers to partner with, and even how to interpret laws and regulations. On the flip side, this also means leaders have to make difficult decisions that may mean causing harm in order to preserve the greater good. One senior executive told us that, ‘the fair decisions are easy. My job is to make the difficult decisions.’

Leaders have the responsibility of making decisions which also means in order to keep this responsibility they must be trusted. ‘Trust’ refers to our ability to be vulnerable to an organisation or person that may have power over us. For example, customers are vulnerable to an organisation because they have no window into how a product or service is created, they must trust that the product or service will work as it is supposed to and that it is ethically created. Similarly, when employees agree to work for an organisation, they are trusting that they will not be abused and that they will have a reasonable amount of job security. 

The benefits of trust 

Research shows that teams that trust their leaders perform better. In a study of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball teams in the US, researchers found that trust in a leader was more important to winning than trust in one’s teammates.  Teams that trusted their coaches won 7% more of their games than teams that didn’t. And the team with the highest trust in its coach won the national championship, while the team with the lowest trust in their coach only won 10% of their games. As one player commented: ‘Once we developed trust in Coach___, the progress we made increased tremendously because we were no longer asking questions or were apprehensive. Instead, we were buying in and believing that if we worked our hardest, we were going to get there.’

The importance of trust translates to a company’s bottom line as well. In a 2002 study of Holiday Inns, 6,500 employees rated their trust in their managers on a scale from 1-5. An increase in trust of 1/8th of a point was correlated with a 2.5% increase in revenues. And at a macro level, this all scales up: a 1997 study of 29 market economies showed that a 10% increase in trust in the population was correlated with a 0.8% increase in GDP.

But as a community, business isn’t capitalising on the benefits trust can bring. According to the 2021 Edelman Trust Barometer, CEO credibility is at an all-time low in several countries, including Japan at 18% and France at 23% (in terms of the proportion of people who rate a CEO as a very or extremely credible source of information about a company) making the challenge for CEOs even more critical as they try to manage today’s issues.

Earning trust 

Because leaders have the responsibility of making decisions, leaders earn trust differently than organisations. Followers want first to know that a leader has earned her power legitimately, and second that she will use it well because she has the power to make decisions that will impact their careers and even the ways that they live their lives. They rely on their leader to make these difficult decisions with compassion and fairness.
A leader who is not trusted will not hold on to their position for long as we can see in the case of companies, such as Boeing, that have suffered a major scandal where the CEO is later dismissed, or in the case of Harvey Weinstein, who was ousted after his multiple abuses
were uncovered. 

The American philosopher, John Rawls, calls that first act of earning trust by acquiring power legitimately at the beginning of a leader’s tenure (or the first exposure that you might have with her in her role) ‘originating consent’. There is then what he calls ‘joining consent’ – the fact that people continuously assess whether they want to keep trusting a leader with power.

Even if you come to your role through the right process, fairly carried out, people still want to know how it originated – on what basis you were selected. In other words, how, exactly, did you come into your role and get the power that comes with it? In democratic societies, we recognise the result of an election by consenting to allow the winning candidate to assume the job of mayor, governor, or president as our leader. In corporations, the process is less visible: boards of directors appoint CEOs, who we in turn, consent to allow to lead our organisations.

The process of earning trust, however, does not end with originating consent. Earning trust does not just happen when a leader first acquires power. It’s a status that is always being reassessed through joining consent, that is, trust needs to be earned over and over, throughout time. 

However, leaders face an uphill battle when it comes to joining consent because it turns out that the very qualities that cause you to earn people’s trust in the first place are easily destroyed by acquiring power. Business students need to be keenly aware that part of retaining trust as a leader is governing yourself to resist the heady side-effects power can create, which paradoxically cause leaders to lose trust. The lexicon of business history is filled with stories of CEOs like Travis Kalanick, who created large companies and then got ousted due to losing touch with the public. But why does this happen?

The paradox of power

Dacher Keltner, a Professor of Psychology who heads up the University of California, Berkeley Social Interaction Lab has, for decades, studied power, which he defines as ‘one’s capacity to alter another person’s condition or state of mind by providing or withholding resources… or administering punishments.’ In his book, The Power Paradox (2016) Keltner describes his research and that of other leading scholars of power.

Power is a paradox in the following sense: the very behaviours that lead others to trust you with a position of power are (or can be) horribly transformed (think Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde) into behaviours that are the opposite of what people esteemed in you before. For instance, leaders often gain their power because of their willingness to listen to others, but once attaining it, they frequently downplay or even refuse to listen to dissenting voices. That is because being in a position of power affects both the way you see yourself and how others perceive you and the way you act. 

Now, the second half of this paradox is not exactly new news. There’s a reason why you have probably heard some version of the quote: ‘Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely’ – the famous opinion of the British historian, Lord Acton. 

Let’s start with the first half of the paradox and Keltner’s description of the behaviours that lead others to trust you with a position of power. In this view, the road to earning and maintaining power and, ultimately, trust is paved by actions that show a caring focus on others. Groups create leaders. They ‘give power to those who advance the greater good, construct reputations that determine the capacity to influence, reward those who advance the greater good with status and esteem, and punish those who undermine the greater good with gossip.’ Keltner’s leaders demonstrate empathy, they give to others, and they show gratitude.

Characteristics of those who rise to power

Keltner conducted the research that first introduced him to these ideas 20 years ago. He wanted to understand why some people rise to power in a group, while others don’t. To get at this question, he designed a natural state experiment, which means an experiment that would allow him to interact with participants as they were living their lives and at home, as it were, in their own spaces. He got permission to study the students who lived together in one hall within a first-year dormitory at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, a public university with a heterogeneous student body. 

At the beginning of the year, he met students and asked them to rate the amount of influence of each person on the hall. Students also completed a questionnaire that asked them to assess the extent to which their own personalities were defined by five social tendencies – a group that psychologists refer to as the ‘Big Five’: kindness, enthusiasm (reaching out to others) focus on shared goals, calmness, and openness to others’ ideas and feelings. He came back at the middle of the academic year, and then at the end, asking students to rate the power held by each of their dorm-mates each time.  

He tallied the power ratings given to each student. He found that as early as two weeks into the year, some students already had more perceived power than others. He also found that each student’s power fluctuated throughout the year. He found that those who rose to power had the most enthusiasm, and that the other Big Five traits mattered as well for retaining power. Researchers replicated these results across 70 other studies, finding that all the people who rose to power had all of the Big Five personality traits. The studies were in settings as varied as hospitals, financial firms, manufacturing facilities, schools, and the military. This is overwhelming evidence that if you want to get power, you need to be someone who values others, who cares about the greater good, and who can help a group succeed.

The reason why Keltner’s book is called The Power Paradox, however, is that he goes on to describe how the actions that might lead one to be chosen to have power can disappear under the neurological and psychological effects that being in a position of power can have on individuals. Keltner calls power a ‘dopamine high’. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is released in our brains when we expect a reward. Keltner found that when people feel more powerful, they get dopamine highs. However, this makes them less aware of the risks associated with an action. 

Perspective-taking and priming 

This transformation from a focus on others to a focus on yourself is also a concern of Adam Galinsky, Professor of Leadership and Ethics at Columbia Business School, who is a renowned social psychologist. He and some colleagues conducted a deceptively easy-looking experiment to illustrate one of the worst effects of power on individuals, which is how it interferes with a person’s ability to take the perspective of others. A key component of empathy, perspective-taking, is the proverbial ability to walk in another person’s shoes, which means to be able to see, feel, and imagine how someone else experiences the world. 

But if you literally can’t put yourself in someone else’s shoes, you can’t take their perspective into account. In Galinsky’s study of 57 undergraduates, he divided the students into ‘high-power’ and ‘low-power’ groups. Students in the high-power group were asked to write about a personal incident when they had power. In the low-power group, students wrote about a personal situation in which another person had power over them. The students were then taken into a separate room and given a series of tasks: high-power participants were asked to allocate seven lottery tickets to themselves and another participant; low-power participants were asked to guess how many of the seven lottery tickets they would receive from another participant. Students were then given the following instructions: Task 1: with your dominant hand, as quickly as you can, snap your fingers five times. Task 2: with your dominant hand, as quickly as you can, draw a capital ‘E’ on your forehead with the marker provided.

Here is the amazing thing that happened. The participants in the high-power position wrote the letter E on their foreheads as if they were reading it themselves, which meant that the E would be backwards from the perspective of someone looking at them and trying to read it. And the participants in the low-power position wrote the letter so that a person looking at them would be able to read it easily. In other words, they wrote it considering the perspective of the other person, whereas the high-power group wrote it from their own perspective. 

The experimental process used by Galinsky is called ‘priming’. It refers to the common and well-validated research technique that finds that giving individuals tasks, like writing about a personal experience, will put them in a frame of mind to think of themselves in a particular way, in this case, as either a person of high power or someone with low power. So, just by being primed to think of yourself as high-power, you look at the world from your own perspective. 

Preparing leaders for an internal battle 

CEOs like Travis Kalanick from Uber (he of the toxic culture, never-ending scandals, and bad-boy fame) and Tony Hayward from BP after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (Mr ‘I’d like my life back’) are first-rate examples of what leadership looks like under conditions of power-laced self-focus, an inability to empathise, and indifference to harm imposed on others.  

What this comes down to is that leaders at any level in an organisation, or even in their personal life, must be prepared for the internal battle that awaits. On one side is the focus on others and the good of the group – the actions and beliefs that enable people to gain power and the respect and admiration of others. On the other side is the well-documented finding that being in a leadership role will pull you towards a focus on yourself and replace attention to others with an inability to care, understand or even be curious about the conditions of other people or groups, except those who serve your interests. 

Describe, analyse and judge: notes on teaching trust and leadership

I’ve [Sandra J Sucher] taught at Harvard Business School for 23 years, including courses on moral leadership, and leadership and corporate accountability. Trust is a skill and therefore when teaching it, it’s important to use examples instead of lectures.  

In the classroom, I draw on a mixture of cases (I recommend Dave Cote at Honeywell to illustrate a trusted leader balancing different stakeholder needs: ‘Honeywell and the Great Recession (A)’ and ‘Honeywell and the Great Recession: The Economic Recovery (B)’) and examples from real life and great literature to stimulate discussions (William Langewiesche’s American Ground (2002) is a fabulous example of how a group earned originating consent,
for example). 

Then using a line of rigorous questioning, I get students to put themselves in a leader’s position. First, we start with observation; I call that step, ‘Describe’. What is the incident that’s happened? What are the leadership challenges? Then we take it deeper; I call that step, ‘Analyse’. Why did it happen? What factors contributed to the present? What do we know and what don’t we know? And finally, I have the students assess and debate the right course of action; I call that step, ‘Judge’. The reality is that in the midst of a crisis or a scandal it’s difficult to know what to do and sometimes there are no clear answers, just tough choices. Students often come into class hoping for right answers – what I hope to give them is a process for thinking through difficult dilemmas. 

Sandra J Sucher (left) is a Professor of Management Practice at Harvard Business School, where she has taught for the last 20 years. At Harvard, Sucher has studied how organisations can change and improve while retaining stakeholder trust and the vital role that leaders can play in the process. She is also an advisor to the Edelman Trust Barometer

Shalene Gupta (right) is a Research Associate at Harvard Business School. She is a former Fortune reporter, writing about diversity in Silicon Valley, big data, and smart cities, before which she worked at the US Department of Treasury and had a Fulbright grant in Malaysia. 

Sandra J Sucher and Shalene Gupta are the authors of The Power of Trust: How Companies Build It, Lose It, Regain It (PublicAffairs, 2021).

This article is taken from Business Impact’s print magazine (edition: August-October 2021).

Leaders and entrepreneurs in focus: Lysa Campbell, CEO at Retail Marketing Group

Business Impact article image for Leaders and entrepreneurs in focus: Lysa Campbell, CEO at Retail Marketing Group

Retail Marketing Group CEO, Lysa Campbell, on the importance for leaders of reflection, gaining trust, and having open conversations that ‘encourage people to have a better understanding of one another and the world around them’

‘Understanding how what you did yesterday will impact today and tomorrow is an important evaluation for any leader or entrepreneur,’ says Lysa Campbell, CEO at Retail Marketing Group and a firm believer in the power of reflection. Innovation and reflection are often key in my role,’ she affirms. ‘Adopting an approach of reflection means that as a wider company we are always learning…’

A leader with a background as the founder of a high-growth field marketing agency, Campbell covers the importance of gaining your team’s trust, and of diversity of thought facilitated by having open conversations, in this interview with Business Impact.

Can you tell us a little bit about your current role and what it involves?

As an experienced agency leader with a successful background in creating business growth and diversification, I’m currently leading Retail Marketing Group (RMG) as CEO for the UK, having joined the agency in 2018.

Innovation and reflection are often key in my role. RMG’s aim is to provide forward-focused solutions that meet our clients’ needs. Adopting an approach of reflection means that as a wider company we are always learning, refining how we operate to be at the top of our game, and making sure we are adapting to the changes happening around us.

My role specifically spans a wide range of departments and responsibilities. RMG offers field marketing and brand experience solutions as well as Storey, our newly launched video chat shopping service. I oversee all these propositions, manage the sales and marketing teams, and make sure every one of our clients gets the best possible service.

Did your Business School/university experience help get your business off the ground? If so, how?

People are often surprised when they learn that not only did I not attend university, but I also don’t have A-level qualifications. After I finished my formal education, I had to decide on the path I wanted to take and drive it forward myself. I am a firm believer that how far you get in life is all about mindset and making the most of opportunities, coupled with a steely determination to achieve more.

During my career, however, I have sought and undertaken courses that have contributed to my success, delivering a combination of immediate and long-term impact. Added to that, I have been fortunate enough to have benefited from having some brilliant role models and mentors from whom I learned a huge amount that I took into setting up my own business.

What single piece of advice would you offer undergraduate and postgraduate students of business and management who plan to start their own companies after completing their studies?

My experiences have taught me to stick to my principles regardless of how difficult the decision is. No matter what, you must believe in yourself and trust that the principles that have carried you so far will continue to help you make the right decisions.

The eight years I spent building and growing my first business were not easy. Through many mistakes and moments of doubt, I learnt that the most important thing that I could do was to make time for reflection. We can only learn in hindsight, so understanding how what you did yesterday will impact today and tomorrow is an important evaluation for any leader or entrepreneur.

What are some of the challenges and opportunities you’re currently facing, both as a leader and as an organisation?

As a leader, one of the best things I can offer my team is bravery, showing my team that I am prepared to make difficult decisions. I had to prove this trait to my team early on, when I had to make the choice to fire a client because they weren’t the right fit. My team had raised their concerns with me, and it was my responsibility to listen, understand and act to show my loyalty to the team. At that stage, our agency was dependent on [that client’s] revenue, however I was grateful to recognise the potential long-term impact my inaction would have, including a negative work culture or losing the trust of my employees.

Being vulnerable, open and honest with your team goes a long way to earning their trust, respect and loyalty.

Do you feel that leading a company has enabled you to make a positive impact? If so, how?

Without a doubt, yes. I hold strong to the fact that the most positive impact a leader can make is with the next generation of the workforce. An employee’s success – from their perspective of an industry and the decisions they make, to how they navigate their careers –  are all heavily influenced by the types of leaders they can observe and learn from.

I take pride in leading a company that welcomes people from all walks of life, with a heavy focus on diversity and inclusion in our corporate strategy. We mostly do this through diversity of thought, bringing varying, diverse viewpoints to the table. Discussions that come from these open conversations encourage people to have a better understanding of one another and the world around them. Tech companies need to prompt these conversations wherever possible, starting with visible representation in leadership roles.

Outline the importance of diversity to your company’s strategy and why you feel it is important to business approaches as a whole today.

Over the last few years, diversity in the tech industry has slowly been improving. It is clear that companies are trying to take steps in the right direction to become more inclusive through various initiatives, although there is a lot more for us all to do.

At RMG, we are trying to ensure diversity is at the core of everything we do. We know we have a long way to go but are seeing positive results from ensuring our push for diverse thinking runs right through from the recruitment process, to offering individually personalised development plans and opportunities to grow. We treat everyone as an individual and provide the support and opportunities we feel enable everyone to develop at their own pace and be the best version of themselves.

Lysa Campbell is currently CEO for the UK at Retail Marketing Group. She started her own agency in 2008 with only two staff. Seven years later, that agency had a turnover of £9 million GBP, with more than 2,000 staff.

The skills you need to be a sustainable leader

A future leader sitting on a bench outside holding his phone with his briefcase on the side.

What traits do you need to be a ‘sustainable leader’? Alison Watson, Head of the School of Leadership and Management at Arden University, looks at qualities to embrace and develop, and outlines why businesses will need them

Our next generation of leaders are going to be under intense pressure to incorporate sustainable practices into everything they do. They will need to ensure that businesses around the globe are contributing to the social, environmental and economic issues impacting our planet. This article considers the skills that business graduates will need to develop to ensure they can become the sustainable leaders of the future.

Changing consumer demands require adaptation

Brands across a wide variety of sectors and fields are placing a huge focus on sustainability right now – and with good reason. With the effects of climate change becoming ever more prominent and a rising public awareness around the pitfalls of some of the elements of western life we take for granted, such as fast fashion and unnecessary food waste, many consumers are looking to buy goods and services from businesses that operate in ethical and sustainable ways.

In 2021, sustainability has become an issue that is impossible to ignore and businesses, in turn, have become compelled to act. The leaders of today must adapt quickly to meet this consumer demand – their businesses risk being left behind if they are unable to do so. 

Meanwhile, the development of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals has driven many businesses to think about how they can incorporate environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG) goals within their organisations to become cleaner, greener and more ethically minded.

But what about the leaders of tomorrow? How will these changes impact them?

Leadership the world needs

The leaders of tomorrow will be expected to be holistic in their approach and make decisions based on sound moral and ethical principles. They’ll need to empower their teams and be visionaries about the ways in which we can revolutionise business to maximise sustainable and ethical practices. 

Put simply, they must become people who will drive change and help create a better world by addressing the core social, environmental and economic issues affecting our planet.

But what core traits will business graduates of today, and therefore the leaders of tomorrow, need to develop to be successful sustainable leaders?

Long-term-thinking visionaries

In business, it’s all too easy to get caught up in the now – and that’s understandable when you consider the multiple pressures our business leaders are under as part of their everyday roles. CEOs are typically working in fast-paced environments and often don’t have the short-term stability to make sound, long-term decisions on projects which won’t bring about an assured uplift in profits.

The sustainable leaders of tomorrow, however, will need to be able to align those short-term business objectives with longer-term, strategic plans that consider objectives related to economic health, the environment, people and society. 

At their core, sustainable leaders should have a comprehensive worldview which contemplates and understands humanity’s place as part of a global ecosystem. They will need to consider how we can minimise our impact on the world around us and ensure we are responsible stewards of the planet we call home.

Once they’ve identified their longer-term objectives, these individuals will need to be able to lead and influence others. Leaders will need to take others along on their journey in generating a commitment necessary to ensure everyone works towards a common set of objectives and goals.

As individuals with a strong moral compass, sustainable leaders must also focus on making decisions that are rooted in moral and ethical principles. They should also be able to back these decisions to the hilt – being responsible and accountable for the decisions they make and the outcomes that follow them.

Seekers of collaboration

The best sustainable leaders are expert collaborators who seek involvement in networks that can broaden their understanding of the business landscape and the way it impacts our world.

By engaging with other leaders from a range of specialisms and sectors, leaders can broaden their horizons and continually inform their developing worldview. It can help to adjust their perspectives and enable them to build strong, long-lasting relationships with key stakeholders. These networks will also reinforce an understanding of people across various cultures and backgrounds, allowing leaders to become keen advocates of diversity.

At the heart of this, sustainable leaders must have a deep understanding of people. They need to know how to empower and get the best from their teams while having a deep emotional and social intelligence which enables them to gauge the impact of their decisions on the people around them.

Effective educators

By its very nature, being a sustainable leader means embarking on a period of change within an organisation. The best leaders take others along on this journey with them, not only by influencing and inspiring, but also by educating their teams so that they understand the reasons behind the decisions being made.

When it comes to managing their people, sustainable leaders must focus on coaching and mentoring, rather than dishing out commands and giving direct instruction. They should empower their teams to learn for themselves and hone their abilities so that they are able to address core challenges themselves – exploring, learning, and devising actions which can help them to address the common challenges they face.

All of this will help ensure that they develop their business’ culture in line with the objectives they have set out, embedding sustainability within the corporate culture and giving their organisation the best possible chance of supporting the world’s sustainability agenda.

Alison Watson is Head of School of Leadership and Management at Arden University. Alison has a wealth of experience in business and management having worked for a number of large retailers as an operations and project manager. Her recent research interests focus on inclusion and encouraging wider access to higher education.

The dark side of confidence

A line of eggs, and one egg is daydreaming to be king. This is symbolic to dreaming big, overconfidence and arrogance.

Reining in pride is a crucial part of business education, says Rita Trehan, co-author of Too Proud to Lead

Business Schools are magnets for talented, ambitious people who are used to achieving what they set out to do. Usually, these driven students go on to become emerging leaders in organisations and their hard work is rewarded with success. 

But too much success also presents possible pitfalls. After a string of accomplishments, young leaders may conclude that their successes prove that their decisions are always correct, and that their ideas are always the best. That attitude risks leading them to dismiss the ideas and perspectives of colleagues. The word for this is ‘hubris’, and it is equally dangerous for the person displaying the hubris as it is for those working with them.

The importance of well-functioning teams whose leaders prioritise co-operation, humility and open-mindedness are clearly demonstrated in my work as the head of a consultancy that helps CEOs and their organisations examine their culture. So, too, are the dangers of what happens when overconfidence is left to grow unchecked. Leaders’ overestimation of themselves and underestimation of others result in poorer outcomes and missed opportunities for both the business and the person who succumbed to hubris.

How hubris works and how to fight it

Too often in both corporate leadership and business education, we equate the drive to succeed with the pressure to succeed at all costs. The pressure on executives and students to achieve results can lead them to abandon any attempts to consult and co-operate. The pressure to meet and outperform, be it for a class or an earnings report, leads to short-termism and a relentless pursuit of success at the expense of broader considerations. 

This results in leaders being wrongly admired for their overconfidence, drive and single-mindedness. It rewards autocratic decision-making by CEOs and boards, and the forgoing of consultation and collaboration. In the short term, the results from this approach might look good and indicate that things are working. In the longer term, it is bound to lead to problems. Poor collaboration leads to siloing throughout the organisation, which can lead to the creation of fiefdoms in which data is not shared but wielded for power against ‘competitors’ within the company. It is not a recipe for long-term thriving.

Companies concerned with legacy, long-term survival and staying relevant are broadening their purpose. Profit and shareholder value are no longer sufficiently broad aims — businesses need to develop a purpose- and values-driven vision for the future. 

By doing so, they are democratising their purpose and creating ownership of it throughout the organisation. By adopting a shared vision, instead of a CEO-driven vision, companies will diffuse most of the risks of a skewed, hubristic approach taking root. 

The trend towards ‘purpose’ as the key driver of a business’s vision for the future is a healthy one and involves all relevant stakeholders naturally – the board, employees and suppliers, as well as the customers and communities. 

This broadening of responsibility creates a need for greater transparency and a wider set of obligations, which forces CEOs to adopt a more inclusive approach. In this way, ethical, equitable, environmental and societal values become a part of their decision-making.

Business Schools can take the lead

Hubris, like so many other issues, is easier to prevent than it is to reverse. That makes Business Schools the perfect place to curb overconfidence in the next generations of leaders. Fortunately for educators, teaching this is not an additional curricular goal to add to the heap — it can be integrated into the existing syllabus.

Not unlike other competencies in business education, teaching against hubris needs to include the development of critical-thinking skills and emphasise the values of collaboration, long-term thinking and the practice of welcoming alternative and opposing viewpoints. 

Stopping hubris requires: 

1. Being able to spot the warning signs — lack of collaboration, lack of humility and a lack of understanding (or willingness to understand) regarding the effects of their decisions.

2. Understanding why people fall victim to hubris, and which kinds of environments encourage it and how to avoid them.

3. Examining high-profile examples that illustrate the business consequences of hubris, both at the level of companies — such as WeWork, General Motors, Uber and Deutsche Bank — and at the individual level – among the executives whose overconfidence in their infallibility led to predictable failures that tarnish their otherwise brilliant careers. The lessons of history must be accompanied by education in anti-hubris values and skills to check overconfidence.

Cautionary tales

I doubt many readers would need more than a moment to think of several examples of hubris in business. There are cautionary tales among both individuals and entire companies: They’re blockbuster movies and 600-page biographies, or, in the case of Boeing, the subject of tragic TV news for weeks. 

Educators can use these examples as case studies. In the 2021 book, Too Proud To Lead, my co-authors and I look at four cautionary tales. The We Company, once again rebranded as WeWork, shows us, ironically, how its name was belied by a failure to embrace true openness and collaboration, while its investors’ unquestioning faith in Co-Founder, Adam Neumann, constitutes its own form of a complementary, enabling hubris.

While Neumann was overconfident in his own abilities, and instilled that in his acolytes and investors, the subject of our second case study, General Motors (GM), is overconfidence in the permanence of the status quo. GM’s failure to compete with Japanese automakers in the 1980s and 1990s cost it market share and reputation. After its recovery in the late 2000s, aided by the US taxpayer, GM seems once more to be underestimating a new wave of competition — this time from Tesla and the industry-wide move to electric vehicles.

Travis Kalanick’s Uber, meanwhile, shows how building an arrogant corporate culture infects and undermines the reputation and potential for long-term success of a business founded on a great idea. Kalanick, Uber’s Co-Founder and first CEO, oversaw incredible growth at Uber but there have been multiple accusations of sexual harassment and unethical competitive practices at Uber during his reign. An air of invincibility, from the top down, continues to haunt the company. 

These examples offer an indication of how some leaders – to their own detriment – close themselves off, assume the future will look the same as the present, and believe in their own invincibility. All these failures have their basis in some form of unchecked power, but none to the degree of our fourth case study, Deutsche Bank (Deutsche). 

Deutsche’s expansion in the 1990s led it to becoming the biggest bank in the world, with assets of more than $2 trillion USD. Instead of seeing themselves as stewards of capital, Deutsche’s leaders interpreted this growing pool of wealth as proof that they could launder money and manipulate markets. Its scandals have cost it revenue and reputation; it has since been eclipsed by other lenders in the EU, not to mention US and Chinese banks.

Focusing on a positive vision of leadership 

Hubris is not just a label for the defeated, to be appended to the loser as a badge of chastening. It is also important to discuss the hubris of iconic leaders, including Mark Zuckerberg and Jeff Bezos. What is there to be regretted in the careers of the most successfully acquisitive business figures of our time? Doesn’t their influence and wealth prove that their confidence was earned and that any arrogance, however unfortunate, didn’t get in the way of their success? Why shouldn’t students emulate their risk-taking and tenacity? 

In some cases, the backlash against their hubris is in progress: Domination at all costs appears to have put Facebook, Amazon and other tech masters, such as Google, en route to being broken up or otherwise subdued by governments around the world. In other cases, the damage is measured in what could have been: If Amazon was less focused on bending its commercial partners, employees and yes, even its customers to its will, who knows what else the business could achieve? Better pay for workers and better terms for suppliers would cost Amazon money, margin and profit to fix, but probably not enough to wound it or slow it down appreciably. It would also thin the ranks of Amazon boycotters and the desire of its critics to rein it in. 

Hubris, of course, thrives beyond the c-suites of the world’s largest corporations. Being ‘too proud to lead’ can cause the downfall of leaders in organisations of all sizes, as well as the downfall of lower-level managers and business students who have bought into their own early hype. Leaders of organisations you once worked for may come to mind. We do not need to dwell on these examples. Instead, we can focus on a positive vision of what kinds of leadership business education can hold up. Leaders who think through their purpose and align this to a wider purpose for their organisation are broadening their aims and aspirations to be more inclusive, more in touch with the wider world and more in tune with changing trends and sensibilities. These leaders regard this not as a demeaning activity, but an empowering one. With the emphasis on empathy, nurturing relationships, and collaboration, leaders are driven by group focus rather than self-focus, which leaves little opportunity for the self-centred nature of hubris to set in.

Holistically successful leaders do something that I call ‘walking the hubris tightrope’ – they attempt to balance ambition and drive with purpose and service. This art form is more of a process than a destination — avoiding hubris is not a box to be checked off but a value to be imparted. Whether educators choose to teach this will profoundly shape the next generation of business leaders.

Rita Trehan is a business transformation expert and the Founder of consultancy, Dare Worldwide. 
She is also the co-author of
Too Proud to Lead: How Hubris Can Destroy Effective Leadership and What to Do About It (Bloomsbury Business, 2021). 

This article is taken from Business Impact’s print magazine (edition: May-July 2021).

What a sixth century BCE philosopher can teach leaders about the fourth industrial revolution

A Chinese statue on top of a temple inspired building in Laozi, China symbolic philosophy of life and leadership

Drawing on his experiences as a consultant during China’s period of explosive growth, the University of Bath School of Management’s Stephen Wyatt considers the capabilities required to thrive in the highly dynamic context of the fourth industrial and the value of a saying commonly attributed to Lao Tzu

I worked in China in its period of explosive growth, from the early 1990s to 2008, when the country went from bicycles, Mao-suits and new cities dusted with sand swept in from deserts, to being the biggest market globally for luxury goods, having the biggest television audience globally for an international polo match (the so-called ‘sport of kings’) and a place where 21 is the average age of a Maserati driver.

Growth of economies in China and Southeast Asia

As a strategy and business consultant, I sought to bridge the gaps between the expectations and operating practices of many major western corporations and also help navigate the opportunities, risks and dynamics of business in China. As China’s economy surged ahead, data was always lacking, there were continual shortages in skills and experience, and regulation lagged far behind, resulting in occasional episodic ‘course-corrections’ that incumbents usually lamented. In the excitement of this bubbling cauldron, huge fortunes were made by those with an impressive ability to make sense of the unfolding changes, who had the decisiveness needed to seize initiatives, and who were able to fluidly reconfigure operations and reposition offerings.

Capabilities were hard to replicate for many western corporations, whose decision makers were far from China and who first needed to first analyse reliable data before deciding. I had been schooled in western business practices so, to help me understand how Chinese business leaders might be thinking, a colleague introduced me to an extract of Chinese philosophy, reputedly from the sixth century BCE and attributed to Lao Tzu (although others have said it was from either Confucius or Xunzi): ‘Those who have knowledge don’t predict. Those who predict don’t have knowledge’. [Lao Tzu is the reputed author of the Tao Te Ching and the founder of philosophical Taoism.]

Executives in China and the ‘tiger’ economies of Southeast Asia were immersed in and focused on highly dynamic volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA) contexts of business. They knew the weakness of forecasts (predictions). Yet many a corporate system, optimised for more stable market conditions elsewhere, depended on periodic formalised forecasting, budget allocation and decision-making processes. In my work with clients, I started to focus more and more on developing the management and leadership capabilities to thrive in highly dynamic marketspaces, rather than seeking only to resolve tensions and complications due to the different paradigms between headquarters and local operations or joint-venture partners. An executive at the agrichemicals company, Syngenta, once told me: ‘Here we are [in the tiger economies], but Harvard didn’t teach us how to ride tigers!’

The new context of business

Over the past 20 years, the fourth industrial revolution has gathered pace globally. The development and application of new technologies (for example, the Internet of Things, AI, robotics, biotech, nanotech, blockchain, and machine learning) is facilitating significant acceleration of business, making disruptions and highly dynamic VUCA contexts increasingly accepted as the norm. Leading firms are shaping the future as it unfolds, new business models are emerging, sector boundaries are being breached, incumbents are collapsing while unprofitable startups, known as ‘unicorns’, are being valued at more than $1 billion USD.

Strategic decisions have to be made relying on data of the past and present, even though it is recognised as decreasingly representative of the future. Regulators struggle to keep up with new norms of corporate behaviour, leading to inquests (for example, the repeated appearances of Facebook before US Senate Committees), remedial actions (for example, China’s 2021 ruling against ride-share company, DiDi Chuxing) and substantial fines (for example, EU fining Google $5 billion USD for abuse of power with its search engine). The dynamics (pace of evolution, disruption, rate of wealth creation and destruction, scarcity of data for strategic decision making, lagging regulation) that face business leaders in the fourth industrial revolution are reminiscent of the dynamics some faced when China and Southeast Asia were the booming frontiers. So what are the capabilities required to thrive in these contexts?   

Possiblity not probability

The first and perhaps most important difference between traditional approaches to strategic decision making and those required in the accelerated VUCA context of the fourth industrial revolution is to embrace ‘possibility not probability’. We can’t gather and analyse data on the future. However, as Canadian scholar Henry Mintzberg pointed out, it is equally wrong to depend on the precision of a forecast for decision making as it is to not predict a possible future.

My research with executives at corporations that do thrive in the dynamic fourth industrial revolution shows the importance of adopting a compelling vision of the future; the possibility, to set often audacious growth objectives in the pursuit of a societal purpose. This forward-leaning strategic posture establishes the orientation to shape the future. It provides directional guidance for where the organisation is heading, course correcting as the future unfolds, encountering both the expected and unexpected challenges. ‘Possibility not probability’ requires executives to think more broadly than unifying on a singular view of the future – what could the opportunities and threats be? The next step is to then decide on which of these to act and on which to keep a watchful eye, ready to act if they actually manifest. A most useful strategic planning technique in these dynamic marketspaces is ‘scenario planning’, through which ideas for action are both identified and placed into one of four categories: ‘Do it’; ‘Be ready to fast-respond’ (if it unfolds); ‘Create an option’ (i.e. lay the foundations for an alternative initiative, but don’t commit just yet); ‘Have an alternative back-up plan’ (what would we do if our main beliefs about the future are proved wrong).

Adaptation

The second set of capabilities are those required for the corporation to adapt in a timely manner – the ‘what it does’ and ‘how it does it’. This requires: developing a heightened ability to sense the future, and make sense of it, as it unfolds; being attentive to weak (and stronger) signals and early indicators; and being able to determine the ‘so, what could this mean for us?’ In this sense, the ability to quickly formulate and implement new initiatives and responses to unfolding opportunities and threats, combined with the ability to replicate them and scale rapidly, is important.

The third complementary capability in this group is the ability to fluidly reconfigure the resources of the corporation to enhance flexibility and efficiency in support of the adjusting array of initiatives; for example, outsourcing or in-sourcing, changing organisation structure, adjusting or duplicating supply chains, and so on.

Winning the race for talent

The third set of capabilities addresses the constant shortage of skilled and experienced talent. In fast-evolving marketspaces, the talent and skills required for a corporation to thrive tomorrow are constantly evolving, i.e. the idea that ‘what got us here is insufficient to take us there’. Over the five years from 2020 to 2025, the World Economic Forum estimates that more than 97 million people will need to upskill or reskill due to the new technologies and working practices of the fourth industrial revolution.

‘Winning the race for talent’ is more important than ‘winning the war for talent’, as an external pool of talent with relevant skills and experiences simply does not exist. To win the race for talent requires constant investment in training and development, fluidly deploying and redeploying talent to the roles requiring those skills as the roles change, and retaining the wellbeing of that valuable talent within the corporation, through human-centred policies and practices. 

For some executives, the skills that are required to thrive in the highly dynamic context of the fourth industrial revolution may echo skills they first explored in the once-tiger economies of Asia. Others will need to free themselves from the false precision of forecasts, or the comforting – yet constraining – periodic strategic planning processes. They might also do well to reflect that: ‘Those who have knowledge don’t predict. Those who predict don’t have knowledge’ and to instead think about possibility not probability.

Stephen Wyatt is Professor of Strategy and Leadership at University of Bath School of Management, Industrial Associate at the University of Cambridge and author of Management & Leadership in the 4th Industrial Revolution (Kogan Page, 2020).

Translate »